An adult has 32 teeth. In front of the mouth there are incisive teeth and canines.
On both side of the canines there are small molar teeth (premolars) and molar teeth (molars). Each side of the jaw has three molars.
Last third molars are wisdom teeth. Wisdom teeth appear from 16 to 25 years, although they can be in their embryonic state for a whole life.
There are 4 wisdom teeth in the mouth on each jaw, on the right and left.
What is impacted wisdom tooth?
Deeply immersed tooth in dentistry is called a tooth that can not cut in full and take its place in the tooth row. Cut tooth is a tooth raising above the gum and reaching the tooth-antagonist on the opposite jaw. The cause of incomplete eruption is that it was not enough space in the tooth row for this tooth or wisdom tooth has the wrong angle.
Impacted wisdom teeth in dentistry are divided by different types. In the direction of position, wisdom teeth are divided into 4 types: medial, distal, horizontal and vertical. The most common type of impacted wisdom teeth is the one with medial immersion. The term “medial” means that the wisdom tooth is angled forward toward the front teeth.
The term “distal” means that the wisdom tooth is angled backwards. Wisdom teeth with vertical, horizontal, distal dip are rare. Wisdom teeth are also divided on those called tissue and bony impacted.
If the tooth has remained deep in the jaw, did not appear on the surface, we speak of “bony” immersion. If it went through the bone but not completely cut through the gum, then it is called “tissue” immersion.
What problems can cause impacted wisdom teeth?
There are some problems caused by wisdom teeth:
- Caries of wisdom tooth
- Damage of the roots of adjacent teeth
Pericoronitis is an inflammation of the gingiva around partially erupted tooth. This is the most frequently occurring complication associated with the eruption of wisdom teeth. A tooth erupts gradually. First, there is one of its hills, forming a gap in the gum, and the rest of the tooth remains veiled by it, forming a hood.
Hood around partially erupted tooth is a potential site of infection. Because of the difficulty of cleaning, food remnants and debris are accumulated at this point; so there are ideal conditions for bacteria which cause inflammation of the soft tissue around the wisdom tooth.
Wisdom tooth caries
We already know that dental caries occurs on the surfaces of the teeth, where plaque accumulates. Wisdom teeth are the most distant teeth, and often using a toothbrush can be difficult. Constant plaque remnants lead to their accumulation and formation of cavities. In addition, if the tooth is cut partially, it is under the overhanging edge of the gums (hood), which also contributes to the accumulation of large amount of plaque and prevents tooth brushing.
Often the position of wisdom tooth doesn’t allow cleaning plaque between it and the adjacent tooth. In this case, caries can affect the contact surface of not only the wisdom tooth, but the next one too.
Dystopia – this is incorrect position of the tooth in a dentition toward the cheek, tongue, or turning around its axis. It is believed that when wisdom tooth erupts, when there is no sufficient space in the tooth row, it puts pressure on other teeth, causing them to move and take the wrong position in the jaw.
Damage of the roots of adjacent teeth
As we already mentioned, wisdom teeth often take the wrong position in the jaw, even horizontal position in the bone. Thus it can connect the root of the adjacent tooth and have significant pressure on it during eruption. As a result, the root of the adjacent tooth starts to dissolve.
When to remove wisdom teeth?
There are no explicit age criteria for removal of wisdom teeth. It is better to remove impacted wisdom teeth in a young age because the sooner they are gone, the lower the risk of associated complications is. Secondly, the younger the organism, the easier it is transferred to various surgical manipulations and quicker healing after the removal. Third, less traumatic are removed teeth which roots are not yet fully formed, and the surrounding bone tissue is less dense.
Wisdom tooth removal
The first step to remove a wisdom tooth is pain relief. After anesthesia, the dentist proceeds to remove the impacted wisdom tooth. Since submerged wisdom tooth may be under the gum and covered with bone, the dentist provides access to remove a wisdom tooth. To create access, the dentist cuts the gum, and then removes the area of bone tissue located above this tooth.
In order to remove the smallest possible amount of bone, the dentist often cuts wisdom tooth in parts for removal. For this purpose dental burs are used. After the separation of a wisdom tooth, the dentist removes each of these parts of the tooth with special tools.
After removal of wisdom teeth the dentist overcasts the seams on the place of extracted tooth, because he had cut the gum tissue and provided access for removal of wisdom teeth.
Some varieties of threads that make these seams subsequently dissolve by themselves, and non-dissolvable stitches are removed by the dentist. Typically non-dissolvable stitches are used – the process of withdrawing is very simple and painless.